40 years of Chinese tea processing
I. Research progress on key common technologies for tea processing
New technology for spreading and withering
（1) New rolling technology
Automatic withering process of black tea production line
Killing green is the key process for processing green tea, oolong tea, yellow tea and black tea. Traditional green killing equipment includes pot-type green killing, roller green killing, etc. The heat sources are firewood, coal, gas, electricity, etc. Due to the traditional green killing equipment, there are problems such as uneven green killing, low thermal efficiency, large temperature fluctuations, and poor thermal stability. , Steam heating, electromagnetic heating and other new heat sources, killing equipment, significantly improve the thermal efficiency of the equipment, rapid temperature rise and parameter controllability.
New technology for shaping (rolling)
(1) New rolling technology
New fermentation technology
Making green is the most critical process of oolong tea quality formation, which is performed by alternating combination of shaking green and spreading cool. Air conditioning making green is currently the most widely used and best-performing green making process in production, and has formed a more systematic temperature and humidity light regulation technology, which makes oolong tea processing free of weather constraints and greatly improves production efficiency; Wuyi Rock Tea makes A series of new equipment, such as the intelligent control system for vibration, and the vibration-making equipment that integrates vibration-shaking and environmental-control, has also been successfully developed.
Drying is the last process of various teas. In addition to removing moisture to achieve sufficient dryness and storage, it also plays an important role in the formation of tea color and flavor. In recent years, microwave technology, far-infrared technology, low-temperature vacuum technology, etc. have gradually been used in tea drying. Widely used in incense. Microwave drying has green and uniform tea color. Far-infrared drying can effectively improve the aroma of green tea. The color and taste are also improved. The production efficiency is significantly improved and suitable for continuous processing. The drying efficiency and aroma flavor of the low-temperature vacuum drying technology are obvious. improve. In addition, research on new energy combined drying technologies such as electromagnetic drying and infrared coupling drying has also begun.
Ⅱ、Research progress on six new tea products and new processing equipment
New green tea products and new processing equipment
In recent years, with the tea consumer market and industrial demand as the guide, the green tea process has been incorporated into the green tea spreading process to produce floral green tea. Energy-saving equipment such as electromagnetic internal heat killing green, microwave-far infrared killing green have been widely used; a series of famous green tea processing machinery such as shapers, fine kneading machines, long-plate longjing tea frying machines have been rapidly developed and promoted. The operation of green tea production lines is becoming more and more extensive. The needle bud-shaped, flat-shaped famous green teas and bulk stir-fried green teas have been cleaned and continuously processed to varying degrees, and some processes can be fully controlled. It is widely promoted and applied in Hubei and other places.
New black tea products and new processing equipment
New varieties, new technologies and new equipment are constantly applied to black tea processing. Oolong tea varieties such as Jinguanyin, Jinxuan, and Huangguanyin, as well as processing techniques such as tanning and making green, are used to make floral and high-flavor black teas Kneading machine, Qu mill, flat tea frying machine and other equipment are used to process flat black tea, curled black tea, etc .; light compensation continuous wither, low oxygen cold rolling equipment, visual continuous fermentation machine and a batch of controllable degree Gao's new equipment is used to build modern black tea production lines. Strip-shaped and needle-shaped black tea automatic cleaning production lines have been widely used in production.
Oolong tea new products and new processing equipment
Developed automatic control of water sieve shaker, vibration shaker, intelligent green machine, etc. The productivity and product stability of the single machine have been greatly improved; microwave drying, far-infrared drying, tea color sorting stem picking machine, etc. The equipment is also applied to oolong tea production. Oolong tea preliminary production automated production equipment, using hot and cold air drying, infrared cyan, and combined with hot air microwave killing device, automatic molding device and automatic drying device, to achieve the entire process of oolong tea production automation and continuous production.
New black tea products and new processing equipment
Traditional black tea processing has high labor intensity, poor process controllability, long production cycle, and the flavor quality of finished tea is extremely unstable. New facilities such as temperature and humidity automatic monitoring and early warning system, Pu'er tea fermentation automatic detection and control system are used for black tea processing, but these studies are only in their infancy, and they are suitable for mechanized, clean, large-scale large-scale intelligent production control systems To be developed.
New white tea products and new processing equipment
Because the traditional white tea strips are loose, there are many inconveniences in packaging, storage, and transportation. New products such as white tea cakes and white tea bricks have been developed. In order to improve the white tea withering process and mitigate the impact of climatic conditions, new equipment such as a white tea withering room and a variable frequency continuous wither with controllable temperature and humidity have been developed to provide white tea with factory processing, quality stability and controllability. Technical Support.
New yellow tea products and new processing equipment
In order to obtain new yellow tea products with special flavors, a series of varieties with low chlorophyll content and low phenol-ammonia ratio, such as Jianbo Huang and Sichuan tea series, were selected to process yellow tea. Steam sterilization is widely used because of continuous heating, short sterilization time and relatively closed environment, which can meet the technical requirements of “more stuffy and less throwing” of yellow tea processing, and promote chlorophyll wet heat degradation. Yellow tea companies such as Luyuan Tea and Mengding Huangya have successively proposed mechanized processing technologies.
Ⅲ、Problems in tea processing at this stage
Generally speaking, since the reform and opening up, China's tea processing technology has developed rapidly at multiple levels and in various directions, and has gradually realized clean and mechanized processing, and gradually developed towards continuous and automated operations. However, due to constraints such as a thin foundation and low scale, tea processing still faces many problems such as labor shortages, high energy consumption in operations, continuous increase in production costs, relatively late development of characteristic new products, and unstable quality and safety levels.
In addition, China ’s tea processing still has a large gap with other tea producing countries, especially Japan and India. For example, Japan ’s steamed green tea production line has a high level of automation and cleanliness. It can process 5 tons of fresh leaves per day, and only 2 people operating. China's tea processing production line is poor in integrity, with low standardization and automation, which affects the stability of the product; the ability to mine, collect and analyze key parameters of the tea production process is insufficient, and the intelligent and targeted control of processing technology is still lacking, In terms of automation and cleaning, there is still a large gap with black tea producing countries such as India and Kenya; research progress in different fields is different. Although some new technologies and new products have been successfully developed, they are still in a small trial stage, leaving large-scale industries. There is still a certain distance from the application of chemical.
Ⅳ、Research directions for future tea processing
First, tea products tend to be high-quality, diversified, and convenient. Relying on technological innovation, tea products are diversified to better meet consumer needs, and process innovation is used to produce unique new features such as color, aroma, flavor, and shape. Products such as floral tea, fruit tea, milk tea, and various functional teas.
Second, the processing entities present different development models based on their own characteristics. Among them, the processing of mass tea products will change from small workshops and small factories to large-scale, mechanized, and quality-controlled directions, and more emphasis will be placed on winning with stable output and quality. Niche tea products are developing towards diversification and specialization, and are targeted to produce tea products.
Third, tea production tends to be standardized, labor-saving, and low-carbon. It is gradually moving towards directional, informatization, and automation operations. The production process can realize remote / terminal expert decision-making of real-time detection of field data, and form information-based and intelligent production management To achieve unmanned operation in the workshop.
Fourth, discipline integration, basic research, and applied research collaboration will be closer. Through close cooperation across disciplines and multiple levels, joint innovations in basic research, applied basic research, and applied technology research will be conducted to gradually propose typical flavor quality Oriented control technology to gradually realize the intelligent evaluation of electronic products for tea products.